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Save to lightbox. A Lebanese girl pose for a portrait. Lebanese girl voicing her views at anti-government protests, Downtown, Beirut, Lebanon. Mediterranean and midlle eastern cuisine Asian girl tasting traditional greek fastfood gyros kebab in street cafe.

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The Maryam and Martha Organization, one of the few associations helping these women, has been receiving single mothers for many years, providing them with the support they need.

Eight out of thirty-nine hospitals in Lebanon had well established prenatal care classes, however only three actually enrolled all women in these classes.

There were other forms of providing, such as information at a low, only having four hospitals giving written information regarding care during the labor as well as delivery.

Six healthcare providers reported that inquiring women about their preferences. Furthermore, few gave women any opportunity for procedures such as shaving, enema or fetal monitoring application.

Lastly, it was seen that all places had strict mobility for women in the delivery process, including eight who tied their arms and legs.

Since their economy has grown about 8 percent but not significantly enough as they are still a country highly in debt from war. Women in correlation with the economy have been able to participate since the s but they are still underrepresented in the labor force and are the first to be negatively impacted when the economy fails.

Currently in Lebanon, Article of their Law of Contracts and Obligations allow men and women the same right to own and administer property.

Married women can even own and manage their property separately regardless of their religious affiliation.

For example, if a woman's husband declare bankruptcy then there are restrictions that are put on the women's property but not the man's.

Furthermore, there is some legal wording that makes it harder for women to stand completely independently economically because women's property, if married are considered purchases by the man's money and technically considered an asset of the man's unless proven otherwise.

Women have the right to work in Lebanon. Though given the right more men are still seen in the work force than women see figure 4 below by the Institute of Women's Policy research.

More women especially those between the age 36 to 55 tend to stay in the home and tend to their family and raising children, playing into the social norms of women's role in Lebanon's patriarchal society.

Although men are relatively represented more in the work force, women still work. Women are more likely to take on part-time jobs if they do work as they have to tend to their household duties as well.

Article 29 of Lebanon's Employment Act was amended to increase maternity leave ; however, Lebanon does meet the standard given by the ILO convention granting women no less than 12 weeks.

Not to mention Lebanon does not offer services to help with childcare making it hard for women to indulge themselves completely in the work force and paternity leave is not offered at all.

Common jobs for women who do work are generally in the service area or do specialists work see figure 6 below by Institute of Women's Policy research to see other jobs women take part in.

Women's salaries compared to their male counterpart is drastically different. Men tend to make more than women causing a vast gender wage gap.

Three times as many men as women make more than dollars per month while three times as many women as men earn less than dollars a month.

There is also a big gap between pay based on a woman's age. The younger the woman the more likely she is to be paid less 2 out of every 3 young women earn dollars or less as increase in pay comes with years of experience.

In order to understand the true importance of the women's movement in Lebanon, it is important to first understand the government and social norms prevalent within the Middle East.

The government of Lebanon operates on a parliamentary scale which includes representatives of each recognized religious organizations in addition to one prime minister which determines the laws that regulate the country.

This Parliament is composed entirely of people who openly practice patriarchal religion. Lebanese women won the right to vote in However, since that victory, only seventeen women have served in the Lebanese parliament.

Not only do each of these religions have their own place in Parliament, they also have their own courts and codes of conduct.

While Lebanon is often seen as a very liberal country, arguably the most liberal country within the Middle East, the systematic oppression of women is still prevalent.

Currently, women are able to: marry freely while understanding that divorce may bring about a great deal of socioeconomic hardships, vote as long as they are able to prove that they have obtained an elementary education, have jobs as long as those jobs do not encroach on their domestic obligations, and walk around in public without having to wear hijabs.

Unfortunately, even with all of those superficial rights, women are still subjected to unwanted advances and social discrimination.

Constitutionally, Lebanese women and men are regarded as equals; however, they are not free from laws and publicly accepted socialized behaviors which encourage male intervention of those rights in the name of honor or family preservation.

Lebanon is guided by 15 or more religious codes and courts including Shi'a , Sunni , Maronite Christians , and Druze parties, all of which "compete to preserve narrow sectarian interests, not those of a unified Lebanon".

They contribute greatly to women's movements by virtue of their research and publications. One such project, Who is She, was designed after IWSAW conducted research to determine how many contemporary Lebanese women in professional positions are widely known to the public.

This is a database that provides the public with "easy access to bibliographical information on a large number of contemporary women in one of the following categories: opinion leaders, senior managers, politicians, professionals, artists, researchers, and experts within a wide range of subjects".

For example, many women within the Palestinian resistance movement live in Lebanese camps. These women "have political meetings at night and often sleep away from home.

Many have been called prostitutes for doing so. But they have stood fast saying that their country comes before family". In most Middle Eastern countries, Lebanese women are regarded as symbols of the nation, not necessarily as active members.

As most contemporary Lebanese women are not known for their contributions outside of the world of scholars, many women's movements go undocumented and are brushed under the rug by the patriarchal government.

Between and , many Lebanese people protested in opposition of the Prime Minister, Fouad Siniora. Since the Prime Minister and parliament are the individuals approving laws, such protests were important especially for women.

At the forefront of these protests were major women's organizations NGOs. One feminist NGO which tackled exploitation and violence on women was Kafa.

Kafa, which was founded in , along with many other women's organizations, aims to diminish social, legal, and economic forms of patriarchy in order to stop violence against women and children.

They proposed a law, which was drafted in , that was to stop domestic violence against women, including marital rape.

This NGO group wrote letters to the Cabinet of Ministers which later stated that they would vie for legal reform and protect women against family violence.

After much lobbying and protesting, people within these NGOs succeeded in pushing the draft law to the parliament where it sat in arrest. Over time, while it was stuck at Parliament, this law was amended continuously due to objections of religious conservatives.

The biggest disagreement regarding this law was one of the most prevalent issues for women: marital rape. Suggestions to amend the law included removal of the segment outlining marital rape as a crime.

Although passing that law may lead to the decrease of many violent situations within the household, its proposed amendment will defeat the purpose of the law.

Some women's activists would argue that the myriad of amendments within this law makes the law detrimental to the advancement of women in Lebanon.

Because there are so many differences within each of the religious courts, domestic violence is handled in a different way depending on which region a woman is involved with.

It is frowned upon for a woman to ever initiate a divorce, in mostly all of the religious sectors of the parliament. In some courts, a woman asking for a divorce must obtain a substantial amount of evidence regarding her husband's indiscretion.

Likewise, if a man were seeking a divorce, in many courts he could obtain that divorce with very little evidence, and in the name of honor or family preservation.

In addition, a woman who goes to her family for support in filing for a divorce may be met with both opposition to her decision, and shame surrounding it.

Such socially accepted beliefs actively contribute to the marginalization of women's voices in Lebanon. In December , the Campaign Against Lebanese Rape Law - Article was launched to abolish the article in the penal code that allowed a man to escape prison if he married his victim.

Media related to Women of Lebanon at Wikimedia Commons. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs additional citations for verification.

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Science Technology. Arts Humanities. Popular culture. By country. See also: Women in government. World Economic Forum. Retrieved Middle East Report.

MERIP : 37— The Daily Star. Archived from the original on June 30, Retrieved February 4, Lebanon: a history, Oxford University Press, , p.

Oxford University Press. Health Policy and Planning. Off Our Backs. Outline Index. Women in Asia. Book Category Asia portal.

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This notion prevails in rural regions of Lebanon where women participate in peasant work. However, it is noticed that the percentage of women working in the labor force has increased.

Since, , Arab societies have allowed women to play a more active role socially and in the work force, basically as a result of the manpower shortage caused by heavy migration of men to Persian Gulf countries.

Notwithstanding the persistence of traditional attitudes regarding the role of women, Lebanese women enjoy equal civil rights and attend institutions of higher education in large numbers for example, women constituted 41 percent of the student body at the American University of Beirut in Although women in Lebanon have their own organizations, most exist as subordinate branches of the political parties.

France confirmed the electoral system of the former Ottoman Mount Lebanon province in setting up a Representative Council for Greater Lebanon in Two stage elections, universal adult male suffrage, and multimember multi-communal constituencies continued the situation that prevailed in Mount Lebanon up to The Lebanese constitution — specifically Article 7, proclaimed that "All Lebanese are equal under the law, enjoying equally civil and political rights, and performing duties and public responsibility without any discrimination among them.

Women were refused the right to vote by early Lebanese government until they organized and began petitioning for equal rights. In the Women's Political Rights Agreement came about and guaranteed that women would be able to vote.

Women had to have documents that could prove that they had received at least an elementary level education. This limitation was lifted five years later in without much discourse or a fight.

Women gained the right to vote halfway into the 20th century, thirty years after American women suffragists gained the right in the United States.

Though the women of Lebanon garnered their right to vote fairly early on, there is still a huge lack of them in Lebanon's political sphere.

The political field in Lebanon, like most of the rest of the world, is male dominated. That is not to say there are no women actors in Lebanon, they are just few and far between.

As of there had only been seventeen women to serve on parliament since suffrage. That number is rather dismal but paints the perfect picture of what the outlook of women in parliament is.

The lack of women in politics is chalked up the political exclusivity that is bred in Lebanon, constricting societal norms and gender roles. The political arena in the country is mostly made of a small number of elite families that have been in power since the s and s and the beginning of suffrage.

There is an extreme lack of women in elected and appointed political positions. To combat the low rate of women's participation in politics and government, the Lebanese Women's Council LWC planned a conference in The government did not take heed to any of their suggestions.

According to Dr. These organizations work toward achieving women's rights on the ground. A large number of women's organizations also focus on lobbying and aim to research and publish their findings on women to influence policy makers and the judicial system.

The Lebanese Women's Council LWC , established in the s, serves as an umbrella entity for more than organization.

One of the very important characteristics of Lebanese politics is the excess of political parties competing for power and control.

There are eighteen political parties in total in the country, but seven currently dominate the sphere. These political parties are almost all men dominated, and the women that do head these parties are often only there because they are a part of one of the political families and have been put in place for power often because of a sudden death or lack of men left to run in the family.

However, in Lebanon the governmental power of the country is separated by the religious factions based on the size of each of their populations.

These figures are extremely outdated and are based on a census of the country that was taken in the year These religious based parties often discriminate against women and refuse to include them.

Women's rights has become fairly progressive over the centuries in Lebanon compared to other Middle Eastern countries as Islamic Law Sharia Law is not used to implement laws however different sects may uphold some traditions within their community.

For example, Article 7 of the constitution of Lebanon asserts that all citizens should have equal rights and duties regardless of gender.

They also have Article 8 of the constitution of Lebanon that individual liberty will be guaranteed and protected by law; however Lebanese women still face gender discrimination.

Not to mention there are still some discrimination laws and penal codes that have been put into place and these laws remain because Lebanon is based upon patriarchal social norms and majority of the men in Lebanon acquire the high positioned jobs within society.

Because patriarchal social norms are enforced, women find the laws set to protect their women rights as ineffective and more restrictive than men in Lebanon, granted urban Lebanese women have more opportunities than rural Lebanese movement but both women alike still face restrictions on their actions.

Though Lebanese women have the right to attend school, get a job in society, etc. Some discriminatory acts that women face as Lebanese women that heavily restrict their movement are rules on divorce and parental custody.

Parenting was an important political act for some Lebanese in the aftermath of the First World War.

This resulted in the reflection of critical transformations in French-Lebanese relations but also contributed significantly to the process of the state formation.

Literature situating children in any historical context in Lebanon is also liable to frame childhood in highly static terms and to underestimate its significance in a matrix of other social, cultural, political, and economic forces.

Those identified as such were variously understood as infants, children, youth, adolescents, boys, or girls, mostly on account of the social and gender roles they played, rather than any other set of factors, but also sometimes by age, biology, and even class.

One of the most conflicted domains, however, in which definitions of the child were called into question was the law. Also, for Islamic jurists, the age at which a woman received her first menses was important for several reasons.

Not only did it signal her entry into adulthood biologically, but it also meant that her responsibilities as a Muslim increased significantly.

According to one treatise on the five schools of Islamic law , "There is consensus among the schools that menses and pregnancy are the proofs of female adulthood.

It was at this point, too, that she would typically begin to fast for the entire length of the day during the holy month of Ramadan , like an adult.

However, "all the schools concur that any discharge that occurs before a girl reaches the age of nine years cannot possibly be menstrual; it is due to disease or injury.

Fourteen or fifteen, for boys and girls, was a much more likely age at which to expect the onset of puberty.

Under the current Lebanese nationality law , descendants of Lebanese emigrants can only receive citizenship from their father and women cannot pass on citizenship to their spouse or children.

On 7 November , Gebran Bassil , the Minister of Foreign Affairs and Emigrants , "refused to compromise on a draft law that would grant citizenship to the descendants of Lebanese expatriates by expanding it to include the foreign spouses and children of Lebanese women".

Education was on the colonial agenda from beginning to end and was awarded special attention on account of its perceived ability to effect the greatest change in the greatest number of Lebanese.

It was also something that missionaries and colonial administrators believed they could collaborate on together, as they imagined a similar citizen-figure into which Lebanese children were to be crafted by the West.

Young people were marked out by foreign missionaries for their potential to transform not just the next generation of Lebanese but also the present generation of parents, especially mothers.

Women and men are looked at differently based on their gender in Lebanon and the stipulations and norms are different for both.

The penal code in Lebanon specifically in marriage used to be in favour of the man. However, it has witnessed some much needed reform.

Article , which had historically been used to reduce sentences awarded for a non-premeditated honour killing resulting from an "illegitimate" sexual intercourse, was scrapped by the Lebanese Parliament on August 4, For example, if the male spouse is an adulterer before accused his adulterous act is questioned on whether it was done in the marital home or the adulterous relationship become public; however, the woman if accused of adulterous acts anywhere anytime no matter the circumstance is automatically convicted.

Moreover, if convicted the sentencing time is less for a male than female male: one month to one year; female: three months to three years.

Mothers were described to be very alone in the process once they embarked on motherhood. A woman by the name of Samar, made it very clear just how misunderstood she was and felt when it came to motherhood.

A young man that she considered her friend, lured her into trusting him and then he raped her and left the country for work.

He would not return any of the calls she made to reach out to him. This first reach in this situation in Lebanon is for the parents to make the young man marry their daughter.

The second attempt was to convince the women to have an abortion. There are so many stories regarding single mothers in Lebanon, but they all have one thing in common: None of them really chose this path, unlike women in more liberal countries, where single motherhood is now a choice and a path women can take without being rejected by society.

However, things are different in Lebanon. Every single mother has already lived a horrible tragedy before getting to the birth phase and raising her child alone.

Stories of rape, sexual assault , incest, partners leaving and many other tragedies mean that single mothers are rejected socially and economically for something that is often not even their fault.

There were single mother issues in Lebanon, which was also viewed as taboo. It was so bad that society's organizations would at all cost disregard providing any form of assistance in the area to avoid being seen as helpers of women who became pregnant without being married.

There are few organizations for single mothers to turn to, and centers supported by official bodies to help them organize their affairs have yet to be established.

The Maryam and Martha Organization, one of the few associations helping these women, has been receiving single mothers for many years, providing them with the support they need.

Eight out of thirty-nine hospitals in Lebanon had well established prenatal care classes, however only three actually enrolled all women in these classes.

There were other forms of providing, such as information at a low, only having four hospitals giving written information regarding care during the labor as well as delivery.

Six healthcare providers reported that inquiring women about their preferences. Furthermore, few gave women any opportunity for procedures such as shaving, enema or fetal monitoring application.

Lastly, it was seen that all places had strict mobility for women in the delivery process, including eight who tied their arms and legs.

Since their economy has grown about 8 percent but not significantly enough as they are still a country highly in debt from war. Women in correlation with the economy have been able to participate since the s but they are still underrepresented in the labor force and are the first to be negatively impacted when the economy fails.

Currently in Lebanon, Article of their Law of Contracts and Obligations allow men and women the same right to own and administer property.

Married women can even own and manage their property separately regardless of their religious affiliation.

For example, if a woman's husband declare bankruptcy then there are restrictions that are put on the women's property but not the man's.

Furthermore, there is some legal wording that makes it harder for women to stand completely independently economically because women's property, if married are considered purchases by the man's money and technically considered an asset of the man's unless proven otherwise.

Women have the right to work in Lebanon. Though given the right more men are still seen in the work force than women see figure 4 below by the Institute of Women's Policy research.

More women especially those between the age 36 to 55 tend to stay in the home and tend to their family and raising children, playing into the social norms of women's role in Lebanon's patriarchal society.

Although men are relatively represented more in the work force, women still work. There is a stereotype that all Eastern women are very shy. But this is not about hot Lebanese women.

They are rather showy and like it when everyone sees their beauty and elegance. Some of them are real party persons. These ladies will not lie about serious intentions.

They are oriented to creating a family. There are many strong points that make these ladies attractive as girlfriends.

But what will they be like after marriage? There is an opportunity to meet Lebanese girls if you come to this country. You can get acquainted with them at any event or in some public places.

Sometimes, it is possible to meet a lady of this nationality even in your country. Some of them go abroad to get a higher education.

So, use the special places for this. There are lots of websites where Lebanese mail order brides are waiting for you. Register, choose the girls, communicate, and you will find your destiny.

The tendency to search for fiances from abroad is becoming more and more widespread among Lebanese women. This can be explained by such factors:.

In this country, the official one is Arabic. But two more languages are used in daily life and at work: English and French. They are taught at schools and widely spoken.

There is an interesting fact that English is more popular with Lebanese Muslims, and Christians who live in this country prefer French. But many people know both these languages at intermediate level.

It will help to avoid cultural misunderstandings, a bad attitude towards you by her family, and difficulties while getting married. It depends on your and her religions.

But if you are of different religions there can be some difficulties. In order to get married one of you will have to change the religion.

But the standard of living in your country plays a big role. Many Lebanese women are interested in making a career. But some of them believe that job is not for females.

So, they want to devote all their spare time to hobbies, traveling, social activities, and looking after a family. Also, pay attention to the fact that in Lebanese mentality, the money which the wife earns is only hers.

She will spend them on herself and never put them into the common budget. As these ladies are always busy with jobs, social activities, and hobbies, very little time is left for doing household chores.

So, if Lebanese women work they prefer having a maid who helps them keep the order in the house. David Andres is a certified coach in the field of relations between a man and a woman.

He is convinced that the difference in mentality is not an obstacle, but an advantage, as it gives more opportunities for the development of relations where each in the couple will be self-sufficient.

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